Laravel Backpack Crud Explained and Reviewed

Recently had a project where I needed to get a CRUD admin up and running quick. My go to framework for CRUD is Django Admin. However Python/Django isn’t always an option for various technical or political reasons. In this case it had to be PHP. So I looked high and low for an out of the box framework that would allow editing of tables and thankfully Backpack Crud (docs, github) was there.

What is CRUD?

  • C – create
  • R – read
  • U – update
  • D – delete

I didn’t really want to roll my own admin interface (been there done that), so I went ahead and installed Backpack Crud.

After you get Composer installed, Laravel installed and Backpack Crud installed, you should be ready to start adding models / controllers.

Backpack Crud has pretty solid documentation included a nice getting started page. I’m doing this write up to to document the extra things I ran into (see example below).

First off, as of January 2018, I ran into dependency conflicts with Laravel 5.5 and Backpack Crud 3.3. I ended up going with this in my composer.json file:

"backpack/base": "0.7.24",
"backpack/crud": "3.2.27",
"laravel/framework": "5.4.*",

How to setup a Backpack Crud model:

  1. Create a new model/request/controller php artisan backpack:crud {name} (name is singular).
  2. Setup model, at a minimum the $fillable property.
  3. Setup request class with validation rules and messages.
  4. Setup controller with fields, columns and filters.
  5. Add a new route in web.php referencing the controller.
  6. Add to link to sidebar (sidebar.blade.php) to new controller.

1) Run the generator:

Say you need CRUD for table of colors with fields: name, sort order and hex code.

First run:

php artisan backpack:crud Color

That will auto generate the model, request and controller files. Then it is up to you to customize the contents of each file. You will also need to setup migrations for the new models.

2) Setup Model (app/models/Color.php):

The model is a straightforward Eloquent model with use CrudTrait;.

What tripped me up at first was you have to set the $fillable property on the model or else nothing shows up! So at a minimum you need to list all the columns you want the user to edit in $fillable.

<?php
namespace App\Models;

use Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Model;
use Backpack\CRUD\CrudTrait;

class Color extends Model
{
  use CrudTrait;

  protected $table = 'colors';
  protected $fillable = ['color_code',
    'name',
    'sort_order',
    'hex_code'];

}

3) Setup Request (app/Http/Requests/ColorRequest.php)

The validation rules for each file go under rules() and the friendly names for the columns go under attributes().

<?php
namespace App\Http\Requests; 
use App\Http\Requests\Request; 

class ColorRequest extends \Backpack\CRUD\app\Http\Requests\CrudRequest {

    public function authorize() { 
        // only allow updates if the user is logged in return \Auth::check(); 
    } 

    public function rules() 
    { 
        return [ 'name' => 'max:50',
            'sort_order' => 'required|numeric|min:0|max:9999999',
            'hex_code' => 'max:6',
        ];
    }

    public function attributes()
    {
        return [
            'name' => 'Name',
            'sort_order' => 'Sort Order',
            'hex_code' => 'Hex Code',
        ];
    }

    public function messages()
    {
        return [
            //
        ];
    }
}

4) Setup Controller (app/Http/Controllers/Admin/ColorCrudController.php)

If you are setting up lots of controllers and copy / pasting watch out for the path to StoreRequest and UpdateRequest, it needs to match. IntelliJ hides the namespace and use section by default so I didn’t see that. I wasted some time tracking down some really strange errors with form validation labels.

The setFromDb() command is what wires up everything, but I found I had to comment that out and manually add all the fields (add/edit page) and columns (listing page) since the schema I was handed had the columns in a different order than made sense on the admin screens. For a really simple table setFromDb() is probably fine though.

<?php

namespace App\Http\Controllers\Admin;

use Backpack\CRUD\app\Http\Controllers\CrudController;

// NOTE: change the requests to match your own file names if you need form validation
use App\Http\Requests\ColorRequest as StoreRequest;
use App\Http\Requests\ColorRequest as UpdateRequest;

class ColorCrudController extends CrudController
{
    public function setup()
    {
        $this->crud->setModel('App\Models\Color');
        $this->crud->setRoute(config('backpack.base.route_prefix') . '/color');
        $this->crud->setEntityNameStrings('Color', 'Colors');
        $this->crud->setFromDb();
.....

5) Setup routes (web.php)

Route::group(['prefix' => 'admin', 'middleware' => ['admin'], 'namespace' => 'Admin'], function()
{
    CRUD::resource('color', 'ColorCrudController');
    // … add more CRUD:resource lines for your models here
});

6) Add link to side bar (resources/views/vendor/backpack/base/inc/sidebar.blade.php)

<li><a href="{{ url(config('backpack.base.route_prefix', 'admin').'/color') }}"><i class="fa fa-table"></i> Colors</a></li>

 

What is great about Backpack Crud:

  • It uses Laravel which is a well thought out PHP web framework that takes a lot of the pain out of PHP development. Laravel’s ORM Eloquent (also great) is central to Backpack Crud. Laravel also has excellent documentation and tutorials, including their Laracasts so it is really easy to get started.
  • Backpack Crud understands Foreign Keys and can wire them to select2’s on the UI (even driven by ajax).
  • You get a lot of control over how thing are displayed and formatted. It allows custom fields and columns.
  • Has a mechanism for filtering data in the listing.
  • Has a built in way to export the listing data to various formats (CSV, PDF, etc).
  • Has a way to make a table read only.
  • Has a user / permissions model (I did not play that part of it too much).
  • A nice selection of baked in UI widgets (date picker, WYSIWYG editor, select2, etc).
  • Has a built in revisions tracker for viewing a history of each record.
  • Good documentation.
  • Backpack Crud does come with a paid licensing model (free for non-commercial use only). It’s affordable and I like the fact that somebody is getting paid to maintain it.

Where I’d like to see Backpack Crud improve:

  • When you wire up a model, you have to add routes and a menu link yourself. That was confusing at first because nothing was showing up. Would be nice if the menu would automatically include the models that have `use CrudTrait;`.
  • Even though Backpack Crud understands foreign keys, you can’t edit child and parent records on the same screen. Django admin has a feature called inlines that lets you do that and it’s been available for over a decade. It is one of my favorite Django features. Yes inlines can get way out of hand if you have lots of child rows or more than a handful of relationships to manage. Still it is a major time saver and works really well.
  • Getting a model wired up involves a lot of verbose code, some of which is repetitive or redundant. It requires you to declare the same field in several places (model, controller, requests, routes, and menu link). Seems like all Backpack Crud needs is a configuration wrapper around the existing functionality to make the implementation faster. That’s how Django admin works – you just give it a list of fields, link it to a modal, and it does the rest.
  • A built in event log of who changed what, independent of revisions would be pretty neat. I ended up rolling my own, which wasn’t too bad because I was able to leverage Eloquent Observers.

 

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How to Override a Composer Dependency so it Pulls From Your Branch

Ran into a situation this week where I needed to fix and slightly customize a dependency of a dependency. This was for a Laravel project that uses Composer to manage dependencies.  Since I’m using Composer everything in /vendor is managed by Composer and is off limits to code changes.

Composer

I need to get things launched – with a fix bugs first attitude. Who has time to wait for a pull request to get approved? Not me.

Thankfully there is a way to tell Composer to override a dependency and use your fork instead of the main provider’s.

1) Make a fork of the repo. 

Do your amazing high touch changes in a branch in your fork. Going forward in this example, let’s say your branch is called myfix.

Side note – in my case, the original project was in github, but I wanted my fork to live in bitbucket. So I followed these steps. It’s not technically a fork but it is still connected to the original repo.  Just make sure the fork / copy has the exact same project name as the original.

2) Update your composer.json file.

"repositories": [
    {
        "type": "git",
        "url": "https://bitbucket.org/myuser/thedependency/"
    }
],
"require": {
    "originalowner/thedependency": "dev-myfix as 5.3.0"
},

The repositories section is where you tell composer about your repo (where the myfix branch lives). Composer will automatically scan for branches in that repository.

The require section “dev-myfix as 5.3.0” part was confusing to me at first so I’ll explain what it is doing.

Your branch is named myfix, but trust me, write in dev-myfix.  That tells composer it is a custom branch (dev- is a composer convention).  Then after dev-myfix the as 5.3.0 part creates an inline alias that allows Composer to satisfy the parent dependency, or anything else in your project that needs thedependency 5.3.0.   In this case 5.3.0 is an example. Make sure the version alias you type into your composer.json files matches what your project needs. You can find that out by running composer show.

3) Re-install dependencies:

  1. Run composer clearcache otherwise it will supply thedependency from a copy in your local cache that points to the original repo. That’s not what you want.
  2. In my case, deleting the composer.lock file was safe and this cleared the way for the next step.
  3. Run composer install

 

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An Awesome Monitor Riser For My Desk

I always wanted a monitor riser for my desk that looked good, was made of natural wood and had internal shelves.  After searching online and coming up disappointed I decided to build my own.

Here it is:

monitor riser for software developer desk

The extra shelves instantly made my life better. The over organizer in me loves having dedicated spots for calculators, note books, noise cancelling headphones, tape measure, flash light, coasters, paper weights, todo list, etc…

monitor riser hides hdmi cable

The design allows me to tuck the latop’s HDMI cable under the first shelf.  It also has room to stash the wired keyboard that goes to my tower out of sight.

Stats:

  • Width: 28″
  • Height: 7 3/4″
  • Depth: 9 3/4″

When building this I took several measurements to get the height just right so my monitor would be eye level with my desk in either sitting mode or standing mode.

Made of cherry wood.

Finished with Tried and True Original Wood Finish (Beeswax and Linseed oil).

My History With Monitor Risers is Ugly:

At past desks I’ve done all kinds of hacky things to get the monitor height just right. This included text books, reams of paper, or ugly looking hunks of plastic. Here was my workstation in 2006:

I recall just loving this desk with the 3 monitors. Today in retrospect it is a little sad looking…. This was at a startup so the fact it was cheap and did the job was smiled upon culturally.

Ergonomics Is Really Important For Software Developers:

The more time you spend at your desk the more it will strain your wrists, neck and lower back.  Having the right setup is important for your health. I’m not an ergonomics expert, but here is what works for me:

  • Herman Miller Embody chair
  • Sit stand desk which I elevate daily.
  • Monitor at eye level (in both sitting and standing mode), which this monitor riser solves or me.
  • Wrist pad for my keyboard.
  • Wrist pad for my mouse pad.
  • A daily walk / break away from the machine.
  • Regular light exercise /  yoga.

You may not need a monitor riser like mine if your monitor’s height is adjustable. Even if my monitor was adjustable, I’d still want the shelving which comes in super handy.

A Desk Should Be Ergonomic, Functional, and Beautiful:

I spend upwards of 50 hours per week at my desk.  Might as well make it as appealing as possible, right?

This new monitor riser has added utility with the shelves, but it is also beautiful. I’m a nerd and a fan of Star Trek.  I was going for the lines of the bridge of the Enterprise NCC-1701-D, and touch of the LCARS user interface. I think I captured both and this piece would work okay as a prop on TNG.

monitor riser for software corner detail

Aesthetics are often overlooked in office environments. I’m not a psychologist and I don’t have a peer reviewed study to quote but my hunch is a better looking office no doubt leads to job satisfaction and higher productivity. That’s how I justify my Millennium Falcon 5 piece canvas set that hangs on the wall:

software developer office Millennium Falcon

Inspiration:

I did a lot of looking around for a monitor riser with internal shelves and a cool design.

This one from CaseBuddy (Australia) is elegant but has no shelving:

case buddy monitor riser

This one from StudioHalf (The Netherlands) was my ultimate inspiration.

studio half riser

studio half riser 2

I went with 100% cherry (as opposed to fir / pine) but kept the exposed end grain design. My version has taller shelves and more aggressive angles and curves. I figure I spent about $80 in wood and it took me 8 hours total.

Hope this inspires you to make your desk ergonomic, functional, and beautiful!

Posted in Fun Nerdy, Work | Tagged , | 1 Comment

How to require SSL when connecting to MySQL on AWS RDS

With MySQL you can opt to connect to the database using an encrypted connection. This option is important to consider on AWS if you are using RDS for your MySQL database. The network between your EC2 server and the RDS server is controlled by Amazon. You don’t know who has access or what is going on in between. Enabling an SSL connection to MySQL does come with a small performance penalty. Back in 2013 I did some benchmarking on this.

First, get the CA file from AWS:

To enable an SSL connection to RDS for MySQL the first step is to download the certificate authority (CA) file from Amazon which can be found here. You may also want to read the AWS docs on the subject.

To make sure your MySQL connection is done over SSL you need to supply the CA file when connecting. It is also a very good idea to configure the MySQL user to require SSL connections. Examples of both are shown below:

When connecting via command line:

mysql -h mydb.rds.amazonaws.com
--ssl-ca=/home/myuser/rds-combined-ca-bundle.pem --ssl-mode=VERIFY_CA
You may have seen posts mentioning --ssl-verify-server-cert, but a new option --ssl-mode has been added in MySQL 5.7 which is more flexible. I'm using VERIFY_CA because it not only requires SSL, but also makes sure the CA matches.

In your .my.cnf, require SSL by setting the following:

[client]
user = myuser
password = ******
host = mydb.rds.amazonaws.com
ssl-ca = /home/myuser/rds-combined-ca-bundle.pem
ssl-mode = 'VERIFY_CA'

After you connect, to double that check SSL is being used:

Once you are connected, run the mysql status command and look for the SSL line:

mysql> status
--------------
mysql  Ver 14.14 Distrib 5.7.19, for Linux (x86_64) using  EditLine wrapper

Connection id: 		12388
Current database:
Current user:  		myuser@myinstance
SSL:   			Cipher in use is AES256-SHA
....
--------------

In addition, FORCE your applications to connect via SSL as well:

As the AWS docs point out, it is really smart to add the REQUIRE SSL option to all your GRANT statements. That way a lazy client that isn’t setup for SSL or has a misconfigured cert will get rejected.

GRANT SELECT ON mydatabase.* TO 'myuser'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY '....' REQUIRE SSL;

For example, to configure Django 1.11 to use an encrypted connection with AWS RDS:

1) Put the rds-combined-ca-bundle.pem file in the same folder as your settings file.

2) Add the OPTIONS directive below to the DATABASES section:

DATABASES = {
    'default': {
        'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.mysql',
        'NAME': 'mydatabase',
        'HOST': 'mydb.rds.amazonaws.com',
        'USER': 'myuser',
        'PASSWORD': '....',
        'OPTIONS':  {
            'ssl': {'ca': os.path.join(os.path.dirname(os.path.dirname(__file__)), 'settings', 'rds-combined-ca-bundle.pem')}
        }
    }
}

How to decide if you should encrypt your connection to MySQL?

If you are running a database of cat memes, you probably don’t have much to gain from enabling this. If your app handles personally identifiable information (PII) or sensitive personal information (SPI) then encrypting the data in flight between the app server and db server makes more sense.

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DBAs are Out of Style and Now There’s a Hole In Your Database

The concept of a DBA – database administrator, has practically gone out of style as a full time job. DBA work, if it is being done, is handled by someone or something else, perhaps in a more vanilla way that works well enough for most systems. However, if the DBA work is being ignored then technical debt is silently piling up.

database administrator

There are still plenty of DBAs (about 120k) in the basements of large companies and government entities. It is just that growth in this area has really dropped off in spite of the fact it is a critical function of any data driven application. This is due to technological advancement (getting easier to run databases), and lack of standards (not anyone’s problem if the data is wrong from time to time). Still I think the Bureau of Labor Statistics is overly optimistic in its estimate that DBA positions will grow 11% between 2014-2024Compare that to the 1.1M software developer positions with estimated growth of 17% between 2014-2024.

So what exactly was a DBA and what did they do?

In the old days (80’s, 90’s, 00’s) the database administrators (DBAs) were in charge of all things database related.

  1. They made sure the database server was running correctly.
  2. They controlled how the data itself was structured so it could be stored efficiently.
  3. They made sure the maintenance scripts, upgrades and backups were running correctly.

Those three tasks are still pretty darned important to a successful system! Given that DBAs are not part of most software teams anymore, are we doing it right?

1) So who is now making sure the server is running correctly?

It used to be a lot harder to make a databases run smoothly. RAID arrays had to be custom configured. There were many arcane commands just to get the database to run on the network. Default block sizes had to align, custom configuration for memory, IO, etc.

Database setup has for the most part been handed to IT / DevOps / The Cloud. AWS RDS, for one example, makes databases an on demand commodity service (Amazon Aurora, PostgreSQL, MySQL, MariaDB, Oracle, and Microsoft SQL Server). In this regard, life couldn’t be easier for application developers to spin up a production ready database.

The default configuration is still something that needs to be checked over and tuned based on the amount of memory on the box but that can be done pretty easily in an afternoon by an application developer or other IT staff member.

2) So who is now making sure the data is ‘structured efficiently’?

In today’s world the words ‘structured efficiently’ amount to a loaded term. It could mean anything to anyone. But if you look around the room and don’t see anybody doing this, then it’s probably a good idea to log a task under technical debt and check into it.

It used to be that data storage was fairly expensive. Application developers were aware of the issue but not necessarily responsible for optimizing the cost of the system. DBAs had control here, and they earned their keep on that front alone.

With cheap storage, lots of RAM, and virtually unlimited bandwidth, efficiency at the level of the 1s and 0s is not as critical as it used to be for a general run of the mill application. To many business level decision makers, what makes something efficient is how soon it can launch. In today’s world the cost of data storage is essentially a rounding error in a company’s overall budget. So again, no real pressing need for a DBA. However, I think that without someone who knows their stuff at the wheel to make sure the data is sane, problems can crop up especially with maintainability.

There are a number of best practices to follow when it comes to storing data. It really varies by platform, for example with a relational database, indexes, normalization, and eliminating stale data is super important. In the NoSQL world though duplication of data is expected and plays into performance goals.

One thing I see all the time in naive database designs is treating what is really historical data as a source of authority. It leads to huge problems. For example, let’s say you have an invoice from last week that links to a customer. What if the customer changes their address tomorrow. Should the invoice change? No! The invoice is a historical record and still needs to reference the customer, plus the address they had at the time they placed the order. Noticing slowly changing dimensions is another way DBAs earned their keep. Unfortunately slowly changing dimensions isn’t taught in school or isn’t appreciated from the application development perspective.

Another thing that sometimes worries me is handing over the responsibility for the database schema to a web framework. Without a DBA application developers are expected to handle database design and schema changes. Frameworks like Rails and Django come with built in tools to do it for you. That approach works up to a point. But in fact, many frameworks will do really stupid things when it comes to JOINs or the ability to build reports that a true DBA would laugh at. In my opinion it is best to fully understand what is going on under the hood when a framework takes over the responsibility of your database structure.

Sometimes the DBA is helpful, but sometimes they are just doing stuff to make their job seem important. I recall one DBA required that all tables be prefixed with ‘t_’. All fields had to be prefixed with ‘f_’ and end with an underscore and a character that denoted the field’s data type (i for int, c for character, d for date time, etc). The DBA also wanted views prefixed with ‘v_’ and stored procedures prefixed with ‘sp_’.

For example, let’s say there was a user table with columns user id and username, the DBA wanted to see:

[t_user].[f_user_id_i]
[t_user].[f_username_c]

Compared this to how I’d typically do it, no prefixes or suffixes:

[user].[user_id]
[user].[username]

The column [f_user_id_i] is the kind of fussy standards DBAs were getting paid to enforce corporate wide in the late 90’s early 2000’s. I can appreciate standards, but only when they add value. Adding readily available meta data to the name of a thing is redundant. It also makes application code and SQL painful to read. So in this respect, I’m really happy I now get to use the shorter, more concise form [user].[user_id] in my code without a DBA lording over it.

3) Who makes sure maintenance scripts, upgrades and backups are running correctly?

Sadly, this one is often neglected unless there is a dedicated sysadmin / IT / devops team watching over it. Again if you look around the room and nobody is doing it, then you probably need to get it on the schedule fast. When it comes to an out of date database engine – what you have is technical debt of the most easily combustible kind.

It is becoming more and more popular for application developers to be responsible for running the systems they write. This is the approach I advocate for with my customers because I want to be responsible for what I create. I want to fix bugs first. I want to keep the system running perfect. Tasking application developers with db maintenance also allows the business to eliminate the DBA position. Sad, but again systems are getting easier to maintain. AWS RDS does maintenance patches for you in your sleep (for the most part).

Unfortunately a lot of business people look at a software system like a fridge – something you plug in and leave for 20 years. The reality it software systems are more like custom race cars, one of a kind, built for a specific purpose, and high maintenance. The data in your application is sort of like the oil in the car, it flows through the system, needs to be cared for, and should not be ignored or left leaking!

The DBA may be gone, or at least morphed into a part time system admin part time DBA, but someone needs to tasked with treating the data like gold.

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Tips for Getting into Software Development Heaven

In programming hell the keyboard layout changes every day. The Internet is laggy. The backlog is so long, it can’t even load. The control and shift keys only work half the time. You may only use pico as your editor. Tab completion never works. OS updates come out every day. OS updates occasionally don’t work. Sticky notes with highest priority cover every surface. There is a lack of natural light. Partly because of the line of people at your desk and the manager breathing down your neck. Long meetings full of powerpoint presentations occur twice daily. There is no way to mark an email as read! The servers are always down. Of course, since it is hell, the air conditioning was never installed… ahhhh!!!!

Programming Heaven or Hell

Given that, my goal is to end up in programmer heaven which I imagine to be:

An office with a comfortable sit stand desk and a big window that natural light pours into. My workstation comes with a giant set of screens and noise canceling headphones. The project has clear time lines and well written specs involving really cool technical puzzles. The code is solid and we are always ahead of schedule. The customers love us. The company is profitable too!

Unfortunately, there is hell on earth in the programming world.

Many of us have encountered a code base so screwed up that maintaining it can cause PTSD or other psychological disorders. I’m talking about the kind of system that makes programmers run and hide.

It stands to reason, whoever was responsible for writing that crap is probably going to programmer hell, right? Actually, I’m not sure if being associated with such a project is grounds for being eternally damned. I really hope it is impossible for one person to screw something up that bad.

It is more likely the blame goes to the overall systems put in place which allowed the bad code base to come into existence. Big code bases are not necessarily all bad. I’ve worked on huge systems with hidden gems buried in them. Maintenance can actually be really satisfying once you get your bearings.

There are a lot of companies that don’t value software, don’t understand it, and honestly don’t like being forced to invest in it. That is where the hellish environments originate from. They can be avoided, and in many cases improved.

How do we get to programmer heaven and avoid hell?

Aside from working at a good company, and not be a blackhat hacker, there is a lot the individual developer can do to control their destiny.

Code side of it:

  • Name things so it is obvious what the thing is and or does.
  • Comment code in the tricky / non-obvious sections and where the spec seems strange.
  • Code defensively – distrust incoming parameters (null, wrong type, incomplete, etc) and do not take external resources for granted (database, file system, APIs, etc).
  • Break up large methods into smaller chunks, and write unit tests if feasible.
  • When an error occurs make sure to log everything about the current state.
  • Use transactions whenever manipulating multiple records at once.
  • Read your own code changes before committing.
  • Read at least two books cover to cover on the main technologies you are working with so you don’t make the same noobie mistakes everyone else is making.
  • Launch code you can live with, don’t worry about gold plating it (appropriate to the context you work in).
  • Use a code linter and formatting rules common to the team.
  • When designing features and architecting for the ‘future’, consider one of my favorite acronyms – YAGNI (you ain’t gonna need it).
  • Make regular backups, especially before pushing changes live.
  • Always work to make the code base a little better with each commit.
  • Do not try and wall yourself off thinking it is ‘job security’ like a stupid barnacle.

Work side of it:

  • Be honest about estimates (maximum padding 2-3x). In other words, if you think it will take 8 ideal hours, tell them 16-24 at the most, but don’t tell them 36, then deliver it after 80 hours. Also don’t tell them 4 and deliver it after 7 with a bug included.
  • Try to beat your estimates, and pass the savings back to the organization.
  • Share your knowledge, especially when asked, and sometimes by your own initiative (eg tune up the Readme file when it is out of date).
  • Look for holes in the spec and ask questions. Ask as many questions as it takes until both sides completely agree on what it is that is being built.
  • When incurring technical debt, be open about it and get approval first. Don’t create technical debt on your own without your manager being aware. Keep a list of all the technical debt that everyone can refer to.
  • Understand the business first, then apply the technology to that. Being obsessed with technology for technology’s sake can lead to serious mistakes.
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Some Tips on Improving your Social Skills (for Software Devs)

After 7 hours heads down working on code the last thing I want to do is talk to someone. In fact, I’m probably so in the zone by that point I’d likely go on to code for another 1-5 hours before calling it a day.

Writing code is what I’ve built my life around. The reality is most days I get a lot of emails, messages to reply to, and I have meetings to attend. So, even though I’m around code a lot and I love that, I’m also working with people constantly. The better you work with people the more value you add and the more indispensable you become.

One way to socialize with people is to get to know a little about everyone you work with. Memorize at least one thing each person is passionate about. All you have to do is bring it up and they will be happy to take over the conversation and tell you more about it.

Don’t waste time gossiping or bitching about work. Be the person who stays positive, or at least stays focused. It is okay to share about your interests outside of work. In fact that would be normal. The way you want to be abnormal is to talk about ideas regularly, events rarely, and people least of all or never.

Another good social skill is going out to lunch with people. At lunch, don’t bring up anything negative, don’t complain about work, don’t talk about office politics. Just talk about things that excite you. Mainly sit there and listen to what others have to say. Make eye contact while listening. In relation to what they are saying, it is okay to be interested or even offer support. Just make sure to they know your individual focus (writing great code, getting in the zone, getting the API launched, etc) so you are not seen as a threat.

Choose your mode of communication wisely. The modes are basically chat, email, phone, and in person.  Don’t write long emails, nobody reads those. Phone calls are great to cover complex issues that require a lot of back and forth.  The pen is mightier than the sword, so if you are the one who gets to summarize and send out notes from a meeting, that is a pretty good place to be. To rope in difficult people, one idea is to type up a summary email after a conversation and cc your boss.

You may argue, ‘screw everybody, I’d rather just code’.  If you isolate yourself at work, you better be extremely sharp technically because that is all you are bringing to the table. Maybe that will be enough for a career? Given how fast technology changes, you’ll need to be learning like crazy on your own time to stay ahead.

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Add Facebook Open Graph (OG) meta tags to your WordPress site with one function

See below for a basic WordPress function that adds Facebook Open Graph OG meta tags to your WordPress site. Works with WordPress version 4.7.2 (at this site).

Facebook OG meta tags have become a standard way of making embedded links look good in Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and hundreds of other sites. The idea is to give the site embedding your link some clues about the title, description, and featured image. Documentation about the OG standard can be found here.

See how my twitter feed is pulling in nicely formatted links with the image and description:

Here is the code for generating the Facebook OG meta tags in WordPress:

The resulting meta tags for this page:

<meta property="og:title" content="Add Facebook Open Graph (OG) meta tags to your WordPress site with one function"/>
<meta property="og:description" content="See below for a basic WordPress function that adds Facebook Open Graph OG meta tags to your WordPress site. Works with WordPress version 4.7.2 (at this site). Facebook OG meta tags have become a standard way of making embedded links &hellip; Continue reading &rarr;"/>
<meta property="og:type" content="article"/>
<meta property="og:url" content="http://lgblog.dev/2017/02/add-facebook-open-graph-og-meta-tags-to-your-wordpress-site-with-one-function/"/>
<meta property="og:site_name" content="Laurence Gellert&#039;s Blog"/>
<meta property="og:image" content="http://lgblog.dev/content/uploads/2017/02/ogtags.png"/>

The software engineer in me shudders at the php global above, but that is how it is done in WordPress land! I don’t claim to be a WordPress developer and I don’t market myself as such. But my blog is hosted with WordPress (which I think does a great job). So from time to time I need to hack out a customization. I tried an existing plugin but it didn’t work (hadn’t been maintained in several months). That is a pretty common situation in the world of free plugins…

The above function should work for posts and pages. To make the image to come in make sure to actually set the featured image. If you don’t see that on the right hand menu on the edit post / page screen, you may need to add add_theme_support( ‘post-thumbnails’ ); to functions.php like I had to. Read more about that here.

Hope this helps!

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How to Structure Ongoing Learning in the Software Field

Many software developers have a love/hate relationship with the amount of ongoing learning the profession requires. It can be really enjoyable to learn new things, especially languages and frameworks that are powerful and fun to use. That moment when a big idea crystalizes in the mind is priceless. At the same time it can be fatiguing to watch technologies change, especially the ones you’ve invested so much into.

Given the need to keep up, one thing I’ve concluded is, it is ultimately up to the individual.

software field always changing

Employers might pay for training. New projects may offer learning opportunities. Take advantage of those opportunities if you have them, but make sure to steer your own course. Be very aware if your job locks you into a legacy stack or you have settled into a coding rut. That leads to rusty skills and puts you at risk in the job market.

How I keep up in the software field:

1) Set broad goals that balance new interests, wild tangents, and core learning. For example:

A. This year dive into framework/language X. For me a few years ago that was getting back into Python and Django. Really enjoying it. Next on my list is TypeScript.

B. Try out technology Y in the next few months. In 2014 for me that was buying an Oculus Rift DK2. The goal was to build a virtual reality database explorer. It was a bust. Turns out VR technology makes me seasick. Hey, I just can’t code while nauseated! Recently my ‘new toy’ has been Angular 2, which seems pretty well designed and doesn’t make me gag.

C. Take a deeper dive into technologies you feel proficient in. Currently working my way through Fluent Python, which goes into the more obscure parts of the language, but has lots of great gems.

2) Whenever I encounter a syntax, acronym, or technology that I’m not familiar with, I look it up.

Earlier in my career I was having to look up things all the time! Today it is less frequent, but still common. This tactic has served me well.

3) Keep a journal of my learning and make it a habit.

Watching screen casts and talks from conferences during lunch is a good habit.  Starting a book club at work is another great way to keep the learning going.

4) Apply the knowledge some way – at work, in my blog, on twitter, etc.

The first three are the ‘input’ side of learning. Point #4 is the ‘output’ side, how you apply and make use of what you are doing, which gives you all important experience.

 

Posted in For New Developers, Work | Tagged , | 1 Comment

Ping your sitemap to Google and Bing with a bash script

If you are using a sitemap.xml file you know you need to submit it to the search engines on a regular basis (say nightly). This is done via a GET request to each search engine’s ‘ping’ URL. Many of the solutions out there for automatically pinging your sitemap.xml file to Google and Bing rely on PHP, Ruby, or other scripting language. On Linux servers, a simple bash script using the built in command wget is sufficient and avoids complexity. As of December 2016, looks like Google and Bing are the only two search engines that support this. Ask.com took their ping script offline, and Yahoo integrated with Bing.  I wound up writing this post because I was annoyed with what I found out there.  Django has a built in one but it only supports Google and never shows output even with verbosity turned up.

The first thing you need to do is URL encode the URL to your site map.

This can be done using an online URL encoding tool.

The URL to the site map for my blog is:
https://www.laurencegellert.com/sitemap.xml, but the search engine ping URL accepts it as a query string parameter, so it needs to be url encoded.

The URL encoded version of my sitemap url is http%3A%2F%2Fwww.laurencegellert.com%2Fsitemap.xml.

Use the URL encoded version of your sitemap url in the script below where indicated.

Place this script somewhere on your system, named ping_search_engines.sh.

#!/bin/bash
echo -------------  Pinging the search engines with the sitemap.xml url, starting at $(date): -------------------

echo Pinging Google
wget -O- http://www.google.com/webmasters/tools/ping?sitemap=YOUR_URL_ENCODED_SITEMAP_URL

echo Pinging Bing...
wget -O- http://www.bing.com/ping?siteMap=YOUR_URL_ENCODED_SITEMAP_URL

echo DONE!

The -O- part tells wget to pipe the output to standard out, instead of a file. That means when you run it manually it displays the output on screen. Wget’s default behavior is to save the returned data to a file. A less verbose mode is -qO-, which hides some of wget’s output, but I prefer to have all that information in the log.

Run chmod +x ping_search_engines.sh so the file is executable.

Add the following cron entry, which will trigger the script every night at 1am:

0 1 * * * /path/to/ping_search_engines.sh >> ~/cron_ping_search_engines.log 2>&1

This script is a good initial way to get going for a simple website. For heavy duty websites that are mission critical, or that your job relies on I’d take it a few steps further:

  • Locate the cron log output in a directory that gets logrotated (so the log file doesn’t get too big). The output is small so even after running it for a year or more the file won’t be that large, but like all log files, it should be setup to auto rotate.
  • Scan for absence of the 200 response code and alert on failure.
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